BLACK SEMINOLES

Topic: Black Seminoles  (Read 401 times)

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Black Seminoles
« on: Oct 2nd, 2007, 9:36pm »
 

In the Name of Allah the Beneficent the Merciful
 
Holy Quran Ch. 15
55 They said: WE give good news with truth, so be not thou of the despairing ones.
56 He said: And who despairs of the mercy of his Lord but the erring ones?
 
As-Salaam Alaikum
 
John Horse and the Black Seminoles, the First Black Rebels to Beat American Slavery
 
http://www.johnhorse.com/trail/00/int/01.htm
 
As-Salaam Alaikum
 
 
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Let us give praise for the coming of our God Allah, Who came in the person of Master Fard Muhammad.

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Re: Black Seminoles
« Reply #1 on: Oct 5th, 2007, 3:30pm »
 

Salaam—-Here are some quotes from one of our Seminole sisters—    “Our people have lived in Texas for over 100 years. Before that, we were in Mexico, where some of us still live and before that we were in Oklahoma, and even earlier than that, Florida. And before that, we came from Africa. As far as we’ve come, in all our travels, we have never lost an awareness of our identity and pride in our freedom, because it is our freedom which makes us different from other Americans of African descent. ”
 
—- Miss Charles Emily Wilson————    ” In the I 7th century our ancestors fought against slavery and escaped into the northern bushlands of Spanish FIorida. There we joined our Indian brothers and sisters who had also escaped from the oppression of the European slavers; together, for many years, we resisted their attempts to recapture us. ”
 
—- Miss Charles Emily Wilson
    “When we had to leave for safer territory in the 1830s to escape the slave raids in Florida, we went to Indian Territory and settled along the Canadian River in what is today Oklahoma. But slave raids continued from nearby states. In our search for peace, we left once again and went to Mexico, though some of our people stayed behind in Oklahoma, where their descendants still live today. ”
 
—- Miss Charles Emily Wilson———–     “We have given our loyalty and our skill to our country, and we have contributed to its history I can rest now, knowing that this has been recognized at last, and that future schoolchildren, both American and Seminole, will learn the part we have played in the growth of our great nation.”
 
—- Miss Charles Emily Wilson
 
Now, you can see why the Great Mahdi-W.Fard Muhammad  included the “Indians” as apart of the Original Black Nation.
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“Without the knowledge of the history of our people before the making of the white race, you will never be able to really understand who God is.” Messenger Elijah Muhammad(pbuh)

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Re: Black Seminoles
« Reply #2 on: Oct 5th, 2007, 3:40pm »
 

————-Salaam–here is more info on this great subject.——–Black Seminoles—Gullahs Who Escaped From Slavery—By Joseph A. Opala

 
 ” The Black Seminoles are a small offshoot of the Gullah who escaped from the rice plantations in South Carolina and Georgia. They built their own settlements on the Florida frontier, fought a series of wars to preserve their freedom, and were scattered across North America. They have played a significant role in American history, but have never received the recognition they deserve.
 
Some Gullah slaves managed to escape from coastal South Carolina and Georgia south into the Florida peninsula. In the 18th century Florida was a vast tropical wilderness, covered with jungles and malaria-ridden swamps. The Spanish claimed Florida, but they used it only as a buffer between the British Colonies and their own settled territories farther south. They wanted to keep Florida as a dangerous wilderness frontier, so they offered a refuge to escaped slaves and renegade Indians from neighboring South Carolina and Georgia. The Gullahs were establishing their own free settlements in the Florida wilderness by at least the late 1700s. They built separate villages of thatched-roof houses surrounded by fields of corn and swamp rice, and they maintained friendly relations with the mixed population of refugee Indians. In time, the two groups came to view themselves as parts of the same loosely organized tribe, in which blacks held important positions of leadership. The Gullahs adopted Indian clothing, while the Indians acquired a taste for rice and appreciation for Gullah music and folklore. But the Gullahs were physically more suited to the tropical climate and possessed an indispensable knowledge of tropical agriculture; and, without their assistance, the Indians would not have been able to cope effectively with the Florida environment. The two groups led an independent life in the wilderness of northern Florida, rearing several generations of children in freedom—and they recognized the American settlers and slave owners as their common enemy. The Americans called the Florida Indians “Seminoles,” from the Spanish word cimarron, meaning “wild” or “untamed”; and they called the runaway Gullahs “Seminole Negroes” or “Indian Negroes.” Modern historians have called these free Gullah frontiersmen the “Black Seminoles.” The Seminole settlements in Spanish Florida increased as more and more runaway slaves and renegade Indians escaped south—and conflict with the Americans was, sooner or later, inevitable. There were skirmishes in 1812 and 1816. In 1818, General Andrew Jackson led an American army into Florida to claim it for the United States, and war finally erupted. The blacks and Indians fought side-by-side in a desperate struggle to stop the American advance, but they were defeated and driven south into the more remote wilderness of central and southern Florida. General Jackson (later President) referred to this First Seminole War as an “Indian and Negro War.” In 1835, the Second Seminole War broke out, and this full-scale guerrilla war would last for six years and claim the lives of 1,500 American soldiers. The Black Seminoles waged the fiercest resistance, as they feared that capture or surrender meant death or return to slavery—and they were more adept at living and fighting in the jungles than their Indian comrades. The American commander, General Jesup, informed the War Department that, “This, you may be assured, is a negro and not an Indian war”; and a U.S. Congressman of the period commented that these black fighters were “contending against the whole military power of the United States.” When the Army finally captured the Black Seminoles, officers refused to return them to slavery—fearing that these seasoned warriors, accustomed to their freedom, would wreak havoc on the Southern plantations. In 1842, the Army forcibly removed them, along with their Indian comrades, to Indian Territory (now Oklahoma) in the unsettled West.”–cont…………………………………………………… …
« Last Edit: Oct 5th, 2007, 3:49pm by Ahmed_El-Shabazz » 71.101.167.170


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Re: Black Seminoles
« Reply #3 on: Oct 5th, 2007, 3:41pm »

The Black Seminoles, exiled from their Florida strongholds, were forced to continue their struggle for freedom on the Western frontier. In Oklahoma, the Government put them under the authority of the Creek Indians, slave owners who tried to curb their freedom; and white slave traders came at night to kidnap their women and children. In 1850, a group of Black Seminoles and Seminole Indians escaped south across Texas to the desert badlands of northern Mexico. They established a free settlement and, as in Florida, began to attract runaway slaves from across the border. In 1855, a heavily armed band of Texas Rangers rode into Mexico to destroy the Seminole settlement, but the blacks and Indians stopped them and forced them back into the U.S. The Indians soon returned to Oklahoma, but the Black Seminoles remained in Mexico, fighting constantly to protect their settlement from the marauding Comanche and Apache Indians. In 1870, after emancipation of the slaves in the United States, the U.S. Cavalry in southern Texas invited some of the Black Seminoles to return and join the Army—and it officially established the “Seminole Negro Indian Scouts.” In 1875, three of the Scouts won the Congressional Medal of Honor—America’s highest military decoration—in a single engagement with the Comanche Indians on the Pecos River. The Black Seminoles had fled the rice plantations, built their own free settlements in the Florida wilderness, and then fought almost continuously for fifty years to preserve their freedom. It is little wonder they should provide some of the finest soldiers in the U.S. Cavalry.
 
Today, there are still small Black Seminole communities scattered by war across North America and the West Indies. The “Black Indians” live on Andros Island in the Bahamas where their ancestors escaped from Florida after the First Seminole War. The “Seminole Freedmen,” the largest group, live in rural Seminole County, Oklahoma where they are still official members of the Seminole Indian Nation. The “Mascogos” dwell in the dusty desert town of Nacimiento in the State of Coahuila in Northern Mexico. And, finally, the “Scouts” live in Brackettville, Texas outside the walls of the old fort where their grandfathers served in the U.S. Cavalry. These groups have lost almost all contact with one another, but they have all retained the memory of their ancestors’ gallant fight for freedom in the Florida wilderness. In 1978, Dr. Ian Hanthingy discovered that elders among the Texas Scouts still speak a dialect of Gullah—140 years after their ancestors were exiled from Florida and as much as 200 years after their early ancestors escaped from rice plantations in South Carolina and Georgia! In 1980, this writer found that elderly people among the Oklahoma Seminole Freedmen also speak Gullah, while many younger people remember words and phrases once used by their grandparents. Both the Oklahoma and Texas groups, though deeply conscious of their Florida heritage, were unaware of their connection with the Gullah in South Carolina and Georgia. They did not know precisely where their slave ancestors had come from before fleeing into the Florida wilderness. The Oklahoma Seminole Freedmen still possess a rich traditional culture combining both African and American Indian elements. They continue to eat rice as a characteristic part of their diet, sometimes applying a sauce of okra or spinach leaves—like the Gullah, and like their distant relatives in West Africa.
« Last Edit: Oct 5th, 2007, 3:42pm by Ahmed_El-Shabazz » 71.101.167.170


“Without the knowledge of the history of our people before the making of the white race, you will never be able to really understand who God is.” Messenger Elijah Muhammad(pbuh)

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Re: Black Seminoles
« Reply #4 on: Oct 9th, 2007, 4:50am »
 

Salaam—Here is more info on the Afro-Indians————William Loren Katz “Black Indians” a hidden heritage.
 
Chief Black Thunder
 
Black Indians want a place in history
 
In April 2002, celebrations of the 500 years of black Indian culture are planned for sites of major historical and cultural significance – the pilgrimage of unification itself; an honoring of ‘Mother Life’By Nomad Winterhawk It happened that life crossed Africans and Native Americans together into one circle.
 
This was in April, 1502, when the first Africans kidnapped were brought to Hispanola to serve as slaves. Some escaped and somewhere inland on Santo Dominico life birthed the first circle of Black Indians.
 
Some black Indians have a dual ancestry of African and Native Americanbloodlines. Others are black people who have lived with Native Americans and maintain their cultural-ceremonial traditions.
 
The seizure and mistreatment of Native Americans and their land, and the enslavement of Native Americans and Africans, were the two parallel institutions that resulted in the Black Indian culture.
 
Water color from 1735 showing black Indians, Native Americans and an African together
 
Though neither white, Christian, nor European, together they created communities of permanence, that included people from overseas. The early history of these communities provides examples of two diverse people living together in peace.
 
Exclusion from most written historical texts does not erase or deny the facts. Only the absence of true understanding of the relationships red and black peoples had, leaves unanswered questions for those groping to understand their family’s past.
 
Great medicine
 
Africans arrived on ‘New World’ shores with valuable assets for both European and Native Americans. They were used to agricultural labor and working in field gangs, something unknown to most Indians.
 
As experts in tropical agriculture, Africans found much to share with Native Americans, and the two groups shared and combined knowledge about indigenous farming.
 
Native Americans found that Africans had ‘Great Medicine’ in their bodies. They were virtually immune to European diseases that decimated most native populations. This was also an encouragement for joining together, to create stronger, healthier children from the unions.
 
Their slave experience also qualified Africans as experts on whites – their motives, diplomacy, armaments, strengths, weaknesses, languages, defenses and plans.
 
Afro-Indian family ties
 
From a common foe, Africans and Native Americans found the first link of friendship and earliest motivation for an alliance. They discovered they shared some vital life views.
 
Family was of basic importance to both, with children and the elderly treasured. Religion, a love and respect for ‘Mother Life’, and the sacred mystery behind life, was a daily part of cultural life.
 
Both Africans and Native Americans found they shared a belief in cooperation, rather than competition and rivalry. Beyond individual human differences in personality, generally speaking, each race was proud, but neither was weighed down by prejudice. Skill, friendship and trust, not skin color or race was important.
 
That Native Americans and Africans merged by choice, invitation, and bonds of trust and friendship, cannot be understated. It explains why families who share this biracial inheritance have never forgotten these family ties.
 
Since 1502, Black Indians have been reported, documented, painted, and photographed coast to coast from Hudson’s Bay to Tierra del Fuego. In the decades between the 1619 Jamestown settlement and the ‘Great Treaty Signings’ of the 1880’s, Black Indian Societies were reported in more than 15 states from New York to South Carolina as well as the thirty Caribbean Islands ‘blessed’ by European colonization.
cont………………………………………………………….. ……….
« Last Edit: Oct 9th, 2007, 4:53am by Ahmed_El-Shabazz » 71.101.167.170


“Without the knowledge of the history of our people before the making of the white race, you will never be able to really understand who God is.” Messenger Elijah Muhammad(pbuh)

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Re: Black Seminoles
« Reply #5 on: Oct 9th, 2007, 4:51am »
 

‘You don’t look Indian’
 
As early as 1640 in ‘British America’ there were policies to separate Africans and Native Americans. This beginning with Govenor John Winthrop’s Narragansetts Policies.
 
Thomas Jefferson, a founding father of America, established the “you don’t look Indian” precedence, when he found “more negro than Indian blood” among the Mattaponies of his home state Virginia.
 
Affected by this rule in their home regions over the next century, other Black Indians were legislated out of existence: The Montauk, Fall River and Dudley Nations, to name a few.
 
It was around the 1740’s that British colonists in the southern colonies, introduced the practice of slavery among neighboring Native Americans. Later, as a result of the Indian Removal Act of 1830, there were over ten thousand Black Indians to be counted among the 60.000 marched to Kansas and Oklahoma on the ‘Trail of Tears’. Unfortunately, neither many black nor Indian children, nor many of their parents have an awareness of this legacy.
 
Black Indians for 500 years
 
Among those who know nothing about us or our culture, there are some who hold the mistaken belief that one must look, act and speak in particular ways, to be recognized as being part of a particular cultural heritage.
 
During the past 400 years, slavery, oppression and racism have served Black Indians: like wind upon the desert corn, they have caused the roots of our culture to grow deeper, in places where experts would say it is impossible for plants to grow.
 
April 2002 will mark the 500th year of Black Indians. For anyone who cares to look, we have been there all the time. Book about black Indians
 
Nomad Winterhawk – Ntsistsista (Butterfly Clan) – is a Black Indian of Cheyenne/Apache-Senegal African-Irish-Algonquin heritage. He has written a book honoring Black Indians and the 500 Year Heritage: ‘The Black Indian Cultural Heritage’ – designed to empower other Black Indians and inspire other individuals who have lost contact with their cultural roots.
 
Scheduled to be published in 2002, the focus of the book is on the value of honoring life, and the issues that confront Black Indians in their daily, individual as well as collective lives. As interesting alternatives to the violence we have around us, it provides valuable images of life passages, in the context of community enhanced ritual mechanisms.
 
OKLAHOMA TERRITORY AND NATIVE AND AFRICAN AMERICAN SETTLERS
 
When more than 60,000 Native Americans were removed from their homes during the 1830s by U.S. Federal troops from the southeastern states of the United States – they were forced Westward to Oklahoma, Kansas, and Nebraska. This was called the “Trail of Tears.” Many of these Native American tribes had previously embraced and either helped or kept numerous African Americans as slaves. African Americans and Native Americans created a mixed cultural blend depending upon the specific tribal group.cont…………………………………………………….. ..
« Last Edit: Oct 9th, 2007, 4:54am by Ahmed_El-Shabazz » 71.101.167.170


“Without the knowledge of the history of our people before the making of the white race, you will never be able to really understand who God is.” Messenger Elijah Muhammad(pbuh)

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Re: Black Seminoles
« Reply #6 on: Oct 9th, 2007, 4:51am »
 

Diana Fletcher of the Kiowa  
 
Kitty Cloud Taylor and her sister of the Ute  
 
Many Native Americans welcomed African Americans into their villages. Even as slaves many African Americans became part of a family group, and many intermarried with Native Americans – thus many later became classified as Black Indians. Therefore Black Oklahomaevolved in many areas as biracial communities within Indian nations. This is a unique history, which developed in many of the western communities where the two
 
Additional Resources
 
Homa Lusa: Center for African and Native American Research – The Center for African and Native American Research were created to pursue theory, research, policy, and strategies related to issues of cultural retention and mental health among Native Americans and African Americans. Our research interests also include the arenas in which African and Native American interactions occurred historically and contemporarily.
http://www.homalusa.org/
 
African American Ancestors Among the Five Civilized Tribes – The historical relationship between Native Americans and African-Americans has been called, “one of the longest unwritten chapters in the history of the United States.” Unlike the commonly held perception that slavery in America consisted only of white people owning black people, the reality was much more complex. There were many whites who were enslaved or indentured, many blacks who were free, and many Indians who owned African Slaves.
http://www.coax.net/people/lwf/blkind.htm
 
The African Native Genealogy Homepage – Celebrating the Estelusti ~ The Freedmen Oklahoma’s Black Indians of the Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Creek, and Seminole Nations.
http://hometown.aol.com/angelaw859/index.html
 
African-Native Americans – We are still here.
http://newman.baruch.cuny.edu/digital/native/
 
Black Indians – Although most of the two million claiming Native American ancestry in the United States are of racially mixed backgrounds, many are still amazed to find that many African Americans are of Indian heritage.
http://www.rosecity.net/cherokee/blackindians.html
 
Beneath the Underdog: Race, Religion and the Trail of Tears – In the fields and homes of the colonial plantations of the United States in the late eighteenth century, the first intimate relations between African American and Native American peoples were forged in their collective oppression at
the hands of the “peculiar institution.”
http://www.users.interport.net/~wovoka/underdg7.html
 
Black-Indian History Resources – This bibliography is a representative–no means comprehensive–list of Black-Indian resources for the so-called Five Civilized Tribes.
http://www.anpa.ualr.edu/Black_Indian_Intro.html
 
Heart of Two Nations: African Native Americans
http://hometown.aol.com/homalosa/index.html
 
Lost Feather Black Indians – The Legacy of the American Black Indian. From the Moors to the Seminole.
http://www.theclique.webprovider.com/lostfeather/index.htm
 
Mawshakh Muurs – There are legends of the Nanticoke family of Lenni Lenabe; which tells of how during the Exodus of the Hebrews a portion of them left Egypt in ships and founded colonies in Spain, Ireland, Scotland, and Maryland. These people mixed in with the natives of the territory (the Lenni Lanabe) and became one family.
http://www.geocities.com/Athens/Ithaca/5321/     cont………………………………
« Last Edit: Oct 9th, 2007, 4:56am by Ahmed_El-Shabazz » 71.101.167.170


“Without the knowledge of the history of our people before the making of the white race, you will never be able to really understand who God is.” Messenger Elijah Muhammad(pbuh)

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Re: Black Seminoles
« Reply #7 on: Oct 9th, 2007, 4:52am »
 

Nzingha’s Nation – A site that among other things records information about Black Indians – past and present.
http://www.thefuturesite.com/nzingha/
 
Seminole-Negro Indian Scouts – One of the toughest units in the United States Army was the Seminole-Negro Indian Scouts. This elite group was recruited in 1870 from black people living in Mexico.
http://www.coax.net/people/lwf/scouts.htm
 
The Seminole Negroes – Texas Historical Commission
http://www.thc.state.tx.us/Seminole.html
  71.101.167.170


“Without the knowledge of the history of our people before the making of the white race, you will never be able to really understand who God is.” Messenger Elijah Muhammad(pbuh)

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Re: Black Seminoles
« Reply #8 on: Oct 9th, 2007, 5:21am »
Quote Quote Modify Modify Remove Remove

Salaam—-Question”What is the population of Original Nation in the wilderness of North America, and all over the planet earth?” Answer ” The population of the Original Nation in the wilderness of North America is 17,000,000. With the 2,000,000 INDIANS makes it 19,000,000. All over the planet Earth is 4,400,000,000″—–Lesson No. 1 , question No. 3 , Written by  Master W. Fard Muhammad(the Great Mahdi) around the early 1930’s–The following is more on this subject form the COLORQ’S COLOR CLUB————–Black Indians (Afro-Native Americans)
 
    My great-great grandmother, Daisy of the Woods, was a full-blooded Shoshone. She married an African. Their daughter, Sally of the Woods, is my great-grandmother. She married an Italian. The whites were so appalled by the marriage they killed him. Their daughter, my grandmother, married a black railroad conductor.  
 
Black American Alabama native, 40s, 1999
 
    In the 1780s, certain white Virginians began to agitate for the termination of the Gingaskin Indian Reservation in Northampton County… In 1812 it was argued that: ‘the place is now inhabited by as many black men as Indians… the Indian women have many of them married black men, and a majority probably, of the inhabitants are blacks or have black-blood in them… the real Indians [are few].’ The reserve was divided (allotted) in 1813 and by 1832 whites had acquired most of it.  
 
Africans and Native Americans: The language of Race and the Evolution of Red-Black Peoples
 
African and Native American interaction began even before Europeans brought African slaves to the Americas. Free Africans reached the shores of the American continent as traders and settlers long before Europeans arrived. In 1975, 2 Negroid skeletons were found in the U.S. Virgin Islands. One wore a pre-Columbian Indian wrist band. They were found in layers dated to about A.D. 1250. In 1974, Polish craniologists revealed that no fewer than 13.5% of the skeletons from the pre-Columbian Olmec cemetery of Tlatilco were Negroid.1
 
Later, when African slaves were brought to the Americas, they mixed with indigenous peoples from North America to South America. In the early days of slavery, indigenous peoples of the Americas and Africans were enslaved together. Sometimes, African slaves escaped to Native American villages on various parts of the American continent.
United States
 
The frequency of intermarriage is alluded to in these 18th century advertisements for runaway slaves in New Jersey:
 
A 1747 ad reads:
 
    Runaway on the 20th of September last… a very lusty negro fellow… aged about 53 years, and had some Indian blood in him… he had with him a boy about 12 or 13 years of age… born of an Indian woman, and looks like an Indian, only his hair… they both talk Indian very well, and it is likely they have dressed themselves in the Indian dress and gone to Carolina.2  
 
A 1778 ad reads:
 
    Was stolen from her mother, a negro girl, about 9 or 10 years of age, named Dianah, her mother’s name is Cash, was married to an Indian named Lewis Wollis, near 6 feet high, about 35 years of age. They have a male child with them, between 3 and 4 years of age. Any person who takes up the said negroes and Indian… shall have the above reward.”3 CONT………………………………………..
« Last Edit: Oct 9th, 2007, 5:24am by Ahmed_El-Shabazz » 71.101.167.170


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Re: Black Seminoles
« Reply #9 on: Oct 9th, 2007, 5:22am »
 

In the 18th century, British colonies in the Southern US encouraged the Cherokees, Chickasaws, Choctaws, Creeks and Seminoles to own black slaves. 4Some of these nations, notably the Seminoles, also took in escaped slaves and refused to give them up when whites came demanding the return of fugitive slaves. In 1750, slavehunters were sent to retrieve a slave living in the Creek Nation. A Creek chief stood between them and the black man, cut their rope and threw it in the fire. The posse returned empty-handed. 5
 
In 1770, a white observer reported that the Creeks allow slaves their freedom when they marry, which “is permitted and encouraged” and their children were considered free.6 Contemporary Euro-American records revealed a European fear for black/Indian mixing, for there were instances of Africans and Indians joining together in armed resistance against Europeans. A British officer had warned, “Their mixing is to be prevented as much as possible.”7 In 1751, South Carolina law stated: “The carrying of Negroes among the Indians has all along been thought detrimental, as an intimacy ought to be avoided.”8 A 16th century French colonial dispatch also stated “Between the races we cannot dig too deep a gulf”.9
 
In the 19th century, a number of high ranking Seminoles married black wives – Chief Osceola was one of them. It was said that 52 of his 55 body guards were black. Seminole King Philip too had a black son John Philip, half brother to Chief Wild Cat. King Philip, Chief Osceola and Wild Cat were key figures in the 2nd Seminole war between the US and the Seminole Nation.10 The US General Sidney Jesup apparently saw the mixing of blacks and Indians in the Seminole Nation as a threat: “… the 2 races … are identified in interests and feelings…Should the Indians remain in this territory, the negroes among them will form a rallying point for runaway negreos from adjacent states.”11
 
When Native Americans in the United States were driven off their land by Europeans, some sought refuge in black communities, passing as ‘colored’ (of mixed Afro-European ancestry). Africana.com article Indian in the Family explores the topic of black/Indian mixing in the US.
 
Today, there are large numbers of black Americans of Native American ancestry.
South and Central America
 
In Latin America and the Caribbean, the percentage of Afro-Native Americans is projected to be much higher than in the United States. Since the earliest days of the Trans-Atlantic slave trade, Africans have merged with indigenous peoples in South and Central America. By 1502, runaway Africans had joined native communities in Haiti. In the 16th century, Brazilian Amerindians captured a Portuguese slave ship and helped the Africans escape.12
 
The first president of Mexico, who abolished slavery, was of African, native and Spanish ancestry. For more information on Afro-Mexicano unity against Europeans, read For the Love of Mexico, Vicente Guerrero and his Black Indian Family.
 
Black Indian Links:
 
African/Native American Genealogy Forum
The African – Native Genealogy Homepage
Heart of Two Nations: African Native Americans
Sequoyah Research Center – Black Indian History Information
Black Indians & Intertribal Native Americans Association
Lone Wolf’s Black Indian Poetry Page
  71.101.167.170


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Re: Black Seminoles
« Reply #10 on: Oct 9th, 2007, 6:01am »
 

 


President Hugo Chaver and the Rise of Black Indian Power
by William Loren Katz
 
In early December, 2006 Hugo Chavez won a landslide election as President of Venezuela with more than 61% of the vote, exceeding previous vote totals, and carrying all 23 of Venezuela states. His victory surpasses popular U.S. Presidents. Not only has he won high office twice before, but in 2004 he defeated a recall election by a whopping 59%. And during his Presidency his embattled regime has foiled efforts to overthrow him through strikes and armed conspiracies — which he claims were orchestrated by the U.S. State Department. At home the landslide victory has driven his foes from hate to accommodation “Chavez is not a dictator,” said Teodoro Petkoff, editor of the opposition paper TalCual, and a key advisor to Manuel Rosales, the losing candidate. “But he’s not a Thomas Jefferson either,” Petkoff hastily added. [New York Times, December 5, 2006, A3.]
 
“Chavez is getting stronger as an unintended consequence of war and globalization,” said Harvard Professor of Latin American history Kenneth Maxwell. In the last five weeks candidates leaning more to President Chavez and Fidel Castro than President Bush were elected to head the governments of Brazil, Ecuador, and Nicaragua; and before that Chavez favorite Nestor Kirchner, twice jailed by the military dictatorship, was elected in Argentina. The political thinking of Chavez — thanks to NAFTA, the U.S. invasion and occupation of Iraq and Afghanistan — is gaining adherents. Earlier this year Juan Evo Morales Ayma was elected Bolivia’s first indigenous President, so the role of people of color also is rising in the Americas.
 
Many who approve Chavez’s policies and even applaud his confrontational approach to President Bush wince at his rash rhetoric and his description of Cuba’s one-party system as a “revolutionary democracy.” In his September address to United Nations General Assembly, the day after Bush spoke, Chavez famously said “the Devil came here yesterday” and “it smells of sulfur today.” The U.S. media used his provocative metaphor to dismiss and bury his illuminating talk. The mildest criticism was that he had failed to show proper deference or common courtesy to his host country’s titular head. Media sources did not acknowledge that Chavez won occasional applause, and some delegates even smiled or laughed at his anti-Bush jibes. Ecuador’s Rafael Correa, who had earlier called Bush a “dimwit,” said Chavez’s comment was an “insult to the devil.” But after he was elected President of Ecuador, Bush called Correa to congratulate him.
 
The mainstream media has consistently failed to mention Chavez’s public assertions that through its CIA agents, secret funds, and connections to rich Venezuelans, the Bush administration has sponsored plots to have him removed from office, and these include assassination attempts. Chavez has chosen to deal with these threats with brash metaphors.
 
For its part the Bush administration has long reacted to Chavez with sputtering fury. Yet today the President of Venezuela sits more comfortably than ever atop a fourth of the world oil supplies — equal to that of Iraq. Venezuela supplies a fifth of US oil needs, and continues to be Chavez’s leading customer.
 
The State Department has cast Chavez as a tyrant in the class of Saddam Hussein, or a Marxist, or a ferociously anti-American clone of Castro. Lately, the characterization has been downgraded to “populist” – intended as a sharp criticism. Actually, his “Bolivarian” revolution springs from multicultural grass roots that pre-date the foreign invasion of the Americas that began in 1492, centuries before Karl Marx, Castro, Hussein or populism. cont………………………….
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“Without the knowledge of the history of our people before the making of the white race, you will never be able to really understand who God is.” Messenger Elijah Muhammad(pbuh)

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Re: Black Seminoles
« Reply #11 on: Oct 9th, 2007, 6:01am »
 

Like four-fifths of Venezuelans today, Chavez was born of poor Black and Indian parents. Since the days of Columbus, descendants of the Spanish conquerors have claimed the privilege of governing Latin America. They have effectively barred Indigenous people from high office. Chavez stands as a direct challenge to white domination of South American governments.
 
Chavez is not only proud of his biracial legacy, but has been using oil revenues to help the poor of all colors improve their education and economic standing. He also has flatly rejected Bush administration efforts to isolate Cuba, counts Castro a friend, and has repeatedly accused the U.S. of meddling in his country, in Cuba and around the world. He has pointed to the history of interventions by the United State that began with the Monroe Doctrine of 1823. Latin Americans, particularly those of his economic and racial background, are increasingly walking to polling booths to register their view throughout Latin America.
 
Chavez rules a country where three percent of the population, mostly of white European descent, own 77% of the land. In recent decades millions of hungry peasants have drifted into Caracas and other cities, to live in barrios of cardboard shacks and open sewers. Chavez wants to reverse poverty, provide jobs, provide education and health care, and redistribute vacant lands. He has begun to transfer fields from giant unused or abandoned haciendas to peasant hands, and though landlords have responded with alarm, he has promised further distributions.
 
Chavez’s “21st century socialism” has repeatedly held out an olive branch to its capitalist foes, and keeps an open-market system. Though foreign oil companies continue to pull in large profits, he does insist corporations pay back taxes and higher royalties. Once they walked away with about 84% of Venezuela’s oil profits, but he has demanded 30% of those profits. Banks and credit card companies report large increases in deposits and loans.
 
At this moment with oil prices booming — and accounting for 47% of government revenues and 80% of exports — everyone in the country is doing well, including his wealthy adversaries. The stock market has risen 130% this year, and the economy is soaring over 10%, the highest growth rate in the Americas. Chavez has stated, “All this stuff about Chavez and his hordes coming to sweep away the rich, it’s a lie. We have no plan to hurt you. All your rights are guaranteed, you who have large properties or luxury farms or cars.”
 
But the most dramatic beneficiaries of “21st century socialism” are the poor. Three million people have enrolled in one of the government’s four free educational missions that offer [1] basic literacy, [2] primary school education, [3] high school equivalency and [4] university education. The number of households in poverty dropped from 42.8% in 1999 when Chavez came to office, to 33.9% in 2006. During the same period households that suffered extreme poverty dropped from 17.1% to 10.6%. The official unemployment figure had been more than cut in half, and the poorest 25% of people has seen their consumption rate more than double.
 
Chavez has brought education to almost a million children who never sat in a classroom. And with 10,000 Cuban doctors, sent by Fidel Castro, he has opened 11,000 medical clinics primarily in barrios. To Venezuelans President Chavez believes in pay back.cont……………………………………………………… …..
  71.101.167.170


“Without the knowledge of the history of our people before the making of the white race, you will never be able to really understand who God is.” Messenger Elijah Muhammad(pbuh)

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Re: Black Seminoles
« Reply #12 on: Oct 9th, 2007, 6:02am »
 

In 1998 and 2000 Chavez won the Presidency by majorities Republicans and Democrats here dream about. In 2002 he defeated a two-day coup attempt engineered by the local elite in alliance with the US, and in the recent recall vote, 90% of voters turned out to keep him in office. Chavez’s strength rests with his poorest citizens. It is also evident that many of his constituents have mobilized behind a broader agenda than his, one stressing participatory democracy and elevating the status of women. At this point, President Chavez does not see this popular movement he unleashed as a threat, and may try to lead it.
 
Chavez also announced a series of foreign programs to provide inexpensive oil to impoverished American populations.  He first focused on small Caribbean and Caricom countries, and the larger Antillas such as Cuba, Jamaica, and Dominican Republic. Then he expanded the plan to bring affordable [a 40% discount] heating oil to the U.S poor through his Citgo oil company in conjunction with Joseph Kennedy’s Citizens Energy. In 2006 Citgo and Citizens Energy will have delivered 100 millions of gallons of oil to more than 400,000 households, doubling last year’s effort. The south Bronx and 163 Native American groups, mostly in Alaska, will benefit. But Chavez’s discount plan, and particularly his offer of humanitarian relief for victims of Hurricane Katrina in New Orleans, drew sharp denunciations from the Bush administration charging his efforts were  publicity stunts. Over the centuries South Americans have endured a crop of caudillos, or military dictators. Many began sounding a radical note only to be overthrown by the CIA or other foreign forces. Some remained in power by shifting their policies after visiting the American ambassador’s residence in Caracas.
 
This former paratrooper seems to spring from a time when Africans and Indians armed and united to fight the first European invasion. For inspiration Chavez can reach back to the misty dawn of the foreign landings when heroic Black and African men and women rose to battle invading armies and their Christian missionaries. In 1819 Simon Bolivar, also of African and Indian lineage and the Founding Father of South America’s Revolution, became the first elected President of Venezuela. Vicente Guerrero, an illiterate Black Indian guerilla General during the Mexican Revolution, took his army into the Sierra Madre mountains where he trained them to wrest their country from Spain’s colonialism – and also taught himself to read and write. Mexico’s ruling white elite mocked his lack of education and called him a “triple-blooded outsider.” But in 1829 after Guerrero came down from his mountain refuge, he became President of Mexico, the first Black Indian head of state. Guerrero wrote Mexico’s constitution, emancipated its slaves, ended racial discrimination and abolished the death penalty. His foes in Venezuela also consider Chavez a racial outsider, but the faces of millions of his supporters refute the charge, and his message continues to triumph at the polls. He seems to relish his role as Latin America’s chief antagonist to the Bush administration. Many believe he instills courage and provides cover for Latin American leaders who have the audacity to challenge the giant to the north.
 
Time will tell if Chavez’s programs and supporters can protect him from the machinations of his wealthy Venezuelan foes and their powerful U.S. allies. Ordinary Venezuelans have initiated their own revolution, and though at this point it undergirds Chavez’s political and economic strength, it may take new directions.
 
Hugo Chavez and his people, historically poor and oppressed, are attempting to write an exciting chapter in the heroic record crafted originally by millions of unknown African and Indian people in the Americas, and continued by Simon Bolivar and Vicente Guerrero.
  71.101.167.170


“Without the knowledge of the history of our people before the making of the white race, you will never be able to really understand who God is.” Messenger Elijah Muhammad(pbuh)

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Re: Black Seminoles
« Reply #13 on: Oct 11th, 2007, 5:13am »
 

SALAAM–PLEASE WATCH THIS VIDEO http://www.veoh.com/videos/v454688D6rCNgrc
  71.101.167.170


“Without the knowledge of the history of our people before the making of the white race, you will never be able to really understand who God is.” Messenger Elijah Muhammad(pbuh)
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3 Responses to BLACK SEMINOLES

  1. hiram1555

    April 11, 2012 at 10:34 pm

    GREETINGS,
    AS YOU KNOW, WE ALWAYS TRY TO GIVE CREDIT WHERE CREDIT IS DUE,BUT IF WE GET CERTAIN INFORMATION PASSED TO US AND WE FIND THAT IT IS CORRECT, WE POST IT. WE ARE SORRY IF SOME OF YOUR RESEARCH WAS USED. IF YOU WOULD FORWARD US A LITTLE INFORMATION ON YOURSELF AND YOUR POST, WE WILL GLADLY PUT UP A LINK AND GIVE YOU CREDIT…..

  2. William Loren Katz

    April 9, 2012 at 4:37 pm

    I notice above many of writings taken from by BLACK INDIANS and my website articles appear on this webiste a friend just e-mailed to me. While I am pleased my research continues to reach many people, it would be appropriate to specifically state in an
    article where it appears, and in what ways has it been altered. Also I notice a listing of websites that often “borrow” from my BLACK INDIANS, but not my website.
    Should this not be corrected, at least to direct people to the original source?
    William Loren Katz

  3. Gardner Recall

    January 4, 2010 at 5:39 am

    The citizens of Gardner, KS are currently working to recall two members of their City Council. The recall is tied up in the courts at the moment, but it should go to a vote in March of 2010.

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