PATTERNS OF GENETIC DIVERSITY

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Patterns of genetic diversity
« on: Dec 16th, 2008, 6:11pm »
 

In the Name of Almighty Allah, the Most Merciful Savior, Our Deliverer, Master of the Day of Judgment. To Allah alone do I submit and seek refuge.
 
Our Saviour has Arrived
CH. 11
 
We have the Jew who does not believe too much in worshiping Idols. He still holds to Moses’ teaching. He is nearer to us than any other race in the way of worship.
 
HTETL 2 Ch.24
 
The Jews and Muslims have always been able to settle their differences between each other better than Christians and Muslims. The Meccan white Muslims claim to be first cousins to the Black Man through Abraham’s two sons (Ishmael and Isaac). But, nevertheless, among the three parties now (Muslims, Jews, and Christians) — and four party (Hindus) a great conflict arises and is growing to reach a bitter end if wisdom is not found to curb it.
 
But, the American Jew and the American Black Man may yet find some way of making a separate relationship out of the other world.
_Messenger Elijah Muhammad
 
 
As-Salaam Alaikum
 
Patterns of genetic diversity
 
Past religious diversity and intolerance have profound impact on genetics of Iberian people
 
New research suggests that relatively recent events had a substantial impact on patterns of genetic diversity in the southwest region of Europe.  
 
In 711 CE, a North African Moorish Umayyad army invaded Visigothic Christian Hispania. Under their leader Tariq ibn-Ziyad, they landed at Gibraltar and brought most of the Iberian Peninsula under Islamic rule in an eight-year campaign. Al-Andalus : Land of the Vandals) is the Arabic name given the Iberian Peninsula by its Muslim conquerors and its subsesquent inhabitants.
 
From the 8th to the 15th centuries, parts of the Iberian peninsula were ruled by the Moors (mainly Berber with some Arab) who had crossed over from North Africa.
 
The study, published by Cell Press on December 4th in the American Journal of Human Genetics, shows that geographical patterns of ancestry appear to have been influenced by religious conversions of both Jews and Muslims in the Iberian Peninsula.
 
“Most studies of European genetic diversity have focused on large-scale variation and interpretations based on events in prehistory, but migrations and invasions in historical times may also have profound effects on genetic landscapes,” explains senior study author Prof. Mark A. Jobling from the Department of Genetics at the University of Leicester.  
 
A Sephardi is a Jew with family origins in the Iberian Peninsula (modern Spain and Portugal). This includes both the descendants of Jews expelled from Spain under the Alhambra decree of 1492, or from Portugal by order of King Manuel I in 1497 and the descendants of crypto-Jews who left the Peninsula in later centuries.  
 
In modern times, the term has also been applied to Jews who may not have been born Sephardi (or even Jewish) but attend Sephardic temples and practice Sephardic traditions.
 
Prof. Jobling and colleagues performed a sophisticated genetic analysis of 1140 males from the Iberian Peninsula and the Balearic Islands, focusing on the Y chromosome, which is passed down from fathers to sons.
 
The researchers found a remarkably high level of Sephardic Jewish (19.8%) and North African (10.6%) ancestry in their large sample of Y chromosomes from the modern population. The Iberian Peninsula has a complex recent history that involves the long-term residence of these two diverse populations with distinct geographical origins and unique cultural and religious characteristics.
 
The large proportion of Sephardic Jewish ancestry does not fit with simple expectations from the historical record. “Despite alternative possible sources for lineages [to which] we ascribe a Sephardic Jewish origin, these proportions attest to a high level of religious conversion, whether voluntary or enforced, driven by historical episodes of social and religious intolerance that ultimately led to the integration of descendants,” offers Prof. Jobling.
 
Additionally, the prominent North African lineage in Iberian populations exhibits low diversity, which favors its arrival after the conquest of 711 AD, and the geographical distribution of North African Ancestry in the peninsula does not reflect the initial colonization and subsequent withdrawal. “This is likely to result from later enforced population movement – more marked in some regions than others,” explains Prof. Jobling.
 
Continued…
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Re: Patterns of genetic diversity
« Reply #1 on: Dec 16th, 2008, 6:12pm »
 

…The research demonstrates that both immigration events from the Middle East and North Africa over the last two millennia and introduction of new Y-chromosome types driven by religious conversion and intermarriage have had a dramatic impact on modern populations in Spain, Portugal, and the Balearic Islands.  
In addition, the findings indicate that recent history should be considered when investigating the impact of events occurring during the earlier prehistory of Europe. The research was funded by the Wellcome Trust.
 
Most native tribes who live and lived within Brazil’s current borders are thought to descend from the first wave of migrants from North Asia (Siberia) that crossed the Bering Land Bridge at the end of the last Ice Age around 9000 BC. In 1500 AD, the territory of modern Brazil had an estimated total population of nearly 3 million Amerindians divided in 2,000 nations and tribes.
 
A new study published November 26, 2007 (see Public Library of Science Genetics), which was led by University of Michigan and University College London researchers, seems to suggest that the Bering land bridge migration occurred during one specific time period, 12,000 years ago, that every human who migrated across the land bridge came from Eastern Siberia during that time period, and that every Native American is directly descended from that same group of Eastern Siberian migrants.  
 
The claim suggests that a “unique genetic variant widespread in natives across both continents — suggesting that the first humans in the Americas came in a single migration or multiple waves from a single source, not in waves of migrations from different sources”.
 
Biogeographical evidence demonstrates previous connections between North America and Asia. Similar dinosaur fossils have been found between Asia and North America. For instance the dinosaur Saurolophus was found in both Mongolia and western North America. Relatives of Troodon, Triceratops, and even Tyrannosaurus rex all came from Asia.
 
In the complex history of human migrations, it is widely accepted that the New World continents were the ones colonized most recently by Homo sapiens, most likely from Asia through Beringia.  
 
A popular model for the peopling of the Americas suggests that the archaeological remains known as the Clovis complex (thought to be the oldest unequivocal evidence of humans in the Americas) represent the people that first colonized the continent after a late glacial
migration through the ice-free corridor that separated the Laurentide and Cordilleran ice sheets.  
 
However, the recently re-evaluated age of the Clovis sites to only between about 12.7 and 13.2 thousand years ago (kya)2 and the confirmed human presence at the Monte Verde site located in southern South America around 14.5 (kya)3 challenge this Clovis-first model and call for alternative hypotheses.
 
(Note, KYA is an acronym used by geologists and paleontologists for “1,000 years Ago”).
 
Similar abbreviations
* TYA: Thousand years ago
* BYA: Billion Years Ago (109 years)
* MYA: Million Years Ago (3 MY = 3,000 years)
* kYA: kiloYears Ago (1 kY = 1,000 years)
* GYA: GigaYears Ago (1 GY = 109 years)
 
Since the first studies, it has been found that extant Native American populations exhibit almost exclusively five mtDNA haplogroups (A–D and X)6 classified in the autochthonous haplogroups A2, B2, C1, D1, and X2a. Haplogroups A–D are found all over the New World and are frequent in Asia, supporting a northeastern Asian origin of these lineages.  
 
Mitochondrial DNA analysis reveals diverse histories of tribal populations from India.
 

 
 
This distribution, together with the similar coalescence time for these haplogroups, was used to suggest a single-migration model. However, a different pattern of diversification and distribution of haplogroup B found in some studies led some authors to hypothesize that it could represent a later and separate migration from the joint arrival of haplogroups A, C, and D.  
 
The history of haplogroup X is more elusive; it is presently found in the New World at a relatively low frequency  and only in North America, it is rare in West Eurasians, and it is almost absent in Siberia.
 
 
Genetic Variation and Population Structure in Native Americans
 
The American Journal of Human Genetics 82, 583–592, March 2008 583
 
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iberian_Peninsula
 
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Almohad
 
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sephardi_Jews
 
http://www.nationmaster.com/encyclopedia/TYA
 
As-Salaam Alaikum
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